Country Time Bar
Jacksonville, NC
nice club...tries hard...good music...downstairs is fun...... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Denise C.
Clancy's Go-Go
Norfolk, VA
weak. MUSIC: cheezy hip hop. ugh. i left shortly after i arrived. DECOR: typical hotel decor, & that ain't good. it's supposed to be hip, not tired &... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by miss b.
Garden Lounge
Moscow, ID
You know, I really don't know how to rate this place.  I had one day in Philadelphia, and I figured it was the type of city to have 1 or 2 locations... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Ervin Macapagal
Sidewinders Tavern & Sports Grill
Jackson, WY
So, I had great expectations of getting a decent shot or three of whiskey and a bite to eat. Admittedly, this was our third place of choice, but we... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Julius Dehaemers
Myrtle Beach, SC
OK here is the story....we waited until they opened and when we finally got there we were informed that the show did not start until 1:30 am and that... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Connie Fomby
Half Moon Saloon
Gallatin Gateway, MT
yeeaaaa..coke freaks.... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Andrea Mondello
Browse Bar and Club Terms by Letter
# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a liquor made from corn, rye, and barley; always blended and usually aged for six or more years in oak casks
a coconut syrup used in many exotic drinks, especially Pina Coladas
a group of liqueurs with a high sugar content with a consistency of cream
a type of red wine, high in tannin and medium to full bodied with a distinctive flavor of black currant (Cabernet Sauvignon)
Recently - (4-97) - discovered to be one of the parent grape varieties that gave rise to the Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Mainly found in cooler, damper climatic conditions than its offspring. Shows moderately vigorous growth and earlier wood and crop maturation than Cabernet Sauvignon. Recommended for grafting to the 3309 rootstock in New York state where it has shown good winter hardiness. Ohio researchers are currently (1999) testing the 1616 and 18-815 rootstocks. The VSP (vertical shoot positioning) trellising system is suggested for this variety, which shows a tendency to overcrop, as a way of controlling excess vegetation. Widely grown in the french Loire region where it is known as the Breton and in large areas of southwest France where it is sometimes known as Bouchy or Bouchet. Other french synonym names are Carmenet, Gros Bouchet, Grosse Vidure and Veron. In N.E Italy the variety is known as the Bordo winegrape. Bordeaux wines commonly contain a blend of both Cabernet varietal wines, a practice increasingly being followed in California and elsewhere. Wine from these grapes can be fermented to many varietal styles, drunk young or aged, having a deep purple color and herbaceous aroma when young. As with Cabernet Sauvignon, growth in North American is mainly confined to the cooler coastal regions: the U.S. Northeast and the Pacific Northwest proving to have hospitable climates. New Zealand has also shown itself to be a potential good home.
Australian synonym name for the Trousseau grape of France.
Variety reported developed in California in the late 1800's as a cross between Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown variety by the gentleman whose name is immortalized. Another report claims that the variety is in fact Trousseau. At last report it is now only found in one very old vineyard, located in San Benito county, California, the fruit from it occasionally made into a spicy, somewhat peppery, curiosity red wine varietal of good quality by whimsical winemakers.
Hybrid red wine V. Amurensis hybrid cross variety created in Russia to withstand cold climatic conditions. Small commercial/nursery acreages currently grown in Nova Scotia (Canada). Vigorous growth when rigorous cluster thinning techniques used on the secondary clusters of this prolific producer. Early budding occurs late May and the cultivar has the unusual characteristic of early closedown in anticipation of first frost causing fruit to fall off the vine within a few days. Susceptible to fungus diseases Aspergillus, Powdery Mildew and Penicilium. Hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) with tendency to high acids in cool years. Reported to be a female pollinate and so needs planting in alternate rows with other varieties. Creates red wine with excellent color and fragrant, heavy aroma recommended for blending with lighter wines. Reportedly similar in many ways to the Michurinetz grape cross - - currently grown on limited acreages in the Finger Lakes region of Western New York State (USA) and Nova Scotia, Canada.
Winter hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) seeded, sweet red-fruited variety derived from a Concord x Catawba american labruscana variety cross first released around 1947. Heavy producer in most climates, ripening in September. Recommended as good tablegrape for growers in State of Arkansas.
Alternate name for the Nero d'Avola grape..
Derived from a Grenache x Malbec cross for use in the Mediterranean climate of the coastal regions of southern France. Having similarities to the former parent cultivar it is reported as being used in limited amounts as a red wine tannin/aroma enhancing agent in the lesser wines of the region. No other details as yet.
Indigenous variety grown in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. At least one local producer makes a VDT varietal red wine from this very rare grape, described as having a berry-like bouquet and warm flavor hinting of bitterness.
Red wine grape variety grown in the Lirac AC north-west of Avignon and in the coastal Bandol AC between Toulon and Marseille, France. Used almost exclusively in blends that approximate a lighter version of a Chateauneuf-du-Pape and capable of around 5 years ageing.
Scarce native red-wine grape found on the island of Mallorca, along with two others indigenous to the island - Fogoneu and Manto Negro. Old vines produce a popular strong, spicy blend, using the grapewine of the latter variety. These blends add complexity and better accept barrel aging.
Variety developed in 1937 and released in 1958 by H.P. Olmo of U.Davis, California. Is the result of a Zinfandel x Refosco cross. Reported to have been developed as a red spider-mite resistant cultivar, but lacked popular acceptance because of high tannin content. Trial plantings showed it would produce a red wine somewhat similar to the former parent but naturally required longer ageing.
a bright red type of orange bitters named after its Italian inventor
One of the early 19th century American labrusca hybrids: created in Ohio from two complex Concord seedling derivatives named Moore's Early and the offspring of a (Belvidere x Muscat Hamburg) cross. Known also by the alias name Island Belle in Washington states Puget Sound region. Ripening around early October, is used as table grape and also to make wine in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, (Canada). At last report a few acreages remain in N. America, mainly for juice production.
Variety developed by Charles Arnold of Paris, Ontario, Canada, around 1860. Is a sibling seedling of Brant, derived from a Clinton x Black St. Peter cross. The fruit ripens in mid-season or later, keeping quite well. Is not recommended for growing because of its high susceptibility to fungus diseases, although it is reported to be capable of producing a good red wine with pleasant bouquet.
Created by the Geneva Research Institute of New York in 1961, this cultivar is a cross between Muscat Hamburg and Hubbard. (No further information available at present).
Very hardy sweet red-skinned seedless grape released in 1977 by the N.Y. (Geneva) Research Station. Cold hardy, ripens in late September, and quite similar to the Delaware variety. Recommended mainly for tablegrape or juice production. Has slightly 'foxy' flavor.
Minor grape grown in the Tuscany region of northern Italy. Red wine from this variety is often used for blending with Sangiovese Grosso in some of the Chianti range of red wines. Is also an ingredient in other local blends. Has many synonym names including Caccione (Nero), Tindillaro and Uva Fosca.
a coffee with frothy milk on top, sprinkled with cinnamon and grated chocolate
Complex Munson cultivar. One of the parents of the Bokay, Eleven Point and Gasconade sibling varieties.
Hybrid red bunchgrape developed and released in 1902 by the dedicated T.V. Munson as suitable for certain areas in State of Texas. Has poor resistance to Pierce's Disease although derived from similar types of parent grape as Conquistador below. Regarded by many as the most delicious of the sweet tablegrapes grown in humid summer regions of the southern U.S.A. and elsewhere where it ripens about the same time as Himrod.
Table/winegrape variety derived from a cross between the Flame Tokay and Ribier (Noir) varieties.
Variety developed in Australia and used to produce dried grapes.
Used to make as a varietal wine by several U.S. wineries, mainly in Arkansas, N. Carolina and Mississippi, this bronze colored complex V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) hybrid cultivar is derived from a Howard x (Topsail x Tarheel) crossing. Has the synonym name North Carolina 57-56. Is a well-recommended, cold hardy, cultivar grown in the Southern States of the U.S.A and generally made into sweet white wines and juice. Intermediate resistance to Bitter Rot, Angular Leaf Spot, and Powdery Mildew. Susceptible to Black Rot and Rust. Not quite as resistant to Pierce's Disease as most other Muscadines. Has vigorous growth and ripening (usually around early to mid-season) reportedly can be controlled with a 90% dry (girdling) scar. Most Muscadines ripen over an extended period of three weeks or more and because Muscadines are harvested without their stems, and 'girdling' (a.k.a dry scarring) is usually needed in order to retain the juice in all of the fruit until harvest crush or marketing. Suitable for machine harvesting. The best known related variety is the Scuppernong.
Derived from a Premier (V.lincecumii) x Triumph cross. Reported to be cold-hardy, disease resistant cultivar developed by T.V. Munson that can make a flavorsome wine. Usually ripens after Concord. No other details as yet.
Red wine grape cross derived from same parents and by same oenologist as Carnelian below and similar in most respects. Claimed to be very similar to Merlot yet somewhat more cold- hardy when grown in cool climates. Mainly used to make a 'stretch' blending wine for lower-priced varietal wines in California, the small amounts grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York are occasionally used for the same purpose (eg. around 10% volume of its wine added to that of the Chambourcin (Noir) creates a taste quite reminiscent of an Italian 'Chianti' wine).
Variety resulting from a Pinot Noir x Cabernet Sauvignon cross. No other details as yet other than it is used to make a red wine by vintners in Switzerland.
Released in the early 1970's, this red-wine grape was created by Dr. H. P. Olmo, a U. Davis oenologist, some 30 years earlier and derived from crossing Grenache x (Cabernet Sauvignon x Carignan). Currently grown in Central California and, more successfully, in Texas.
White-wine producing variety mainly found in the Etna DOC region of Sicily. Synonym names are Catanese Bianco and Nocera Bianca.
Has several synonym names, including Mammoth Globe, and was obtained from an Isabella hybrid variety selected seedling. It is one of the parents, the other being Black Hamburg, of several hybrid cultivars that include Agawam and Herbert.
(No details as yet other than it is one of the parents of the Beta american labruscana variety).
Has synonym name Seibel 13053. Early, moderately hardy blue French-American hybrid grape unfortunately attractive to birds. Used to produce a light red wine with low body acidity. Because of vulnerability to soil borne virus diseases it is low on the recommendation list for wine grapes although used (10/2002) by at least 2 New York wineries.
Has synonym names Arcott, Arnott and Arrott. Reported to be a V.labrusca/vinifera(?) chance seedling, named after the discoverer, dating from 1852. Has medium vigor and is productive, ripening around the same time as Catawba to give medium-size greenish-white berries that can be enjoyed as tablegrapes.
French-American hybrid cultivar grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Recommended as suitable for Wine or Juice use. Ripens early to mid-season. No other details available as yet.
Has synonym name Geilweilerhof B-7-2. Variety reported as derived from a (Oberlin 595)F1 x Foster's White Seedling cross recommended for white wine production. No other details as yet.
Variety native to Sicily where it is found widely grown along the western coast. Usually blended with Grillo and the Inzolia white wines to create versions of historically interesting 'Marsala' wine in several dry, or sweet dessert, styles. Also grown in Tunisia where its fruit is made into a wine subsequently blended with Rassegui to make a white wine claimed to be vaguely taste reminiscent of Welschriesling concoctions.
Winegrape variety grown in Italy and elsewhere. Has synonym name Greani.
This historically important variety is reportedly a N. Carolina chance seedling, selected prior to 1807, that originated in the Piedmont region of that State and was named after the nearby Catawba river. An American (ie. thought to be a V.labrusca x V.vinifera hybrid) red slipskin grape, it is commonly used to produce sweet white, red and rose' wines distinguished by a so-called 'foxy' aroma component in cases where modern winemaking techniques fail to remove/mitigate the agent responsible. A late-season ripener, giving medium size berries having a dull purplish-red skin, it may fail to properly do so unless grown in areas with a long growing season. Has some susceptibility to fungus diseases. An excellent keeper, lasting until March, it is also popular as a Table grape. Commonly grown in the Eastern U.S. and Canada on favorable sites, thriving on sand, gravel or clay soils with good drainage, humus content and bottom heat. New York state wineries produce large amounts of sparkling wine from this variety. Its high acid profile can be modified by blending with other suitable labruscana derived red wines such as Rougeon. Also quite popular when made into an ultra-sweet 'ice-wine' from frozen grapes.
A recommended hybrid cross, developed 1947 and released in 1972 by the Geneva (NY) Research Station, between the Schuyler and Seyval Blanc cultivars. Usually ripens around late September and is used to make a fruity white wine of mild intensity somewhat similar to Riesling. Widely grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State and other hard-frost to -5 deg. F. (ca -20 C.) susceptible regions of North America. Also recommended for Arkansas. Noted for hardiness and bunch rot disease resistance, the grapes should be picked at low sugars to avoid over-ripe, sometimes labrusca-like, flavors. Young shoots reportedly fragile in strong winds.
Red-wine grape local to the Rioja Alta region of Spain. Used to make good regional varietal wine.
Red grape cross with same parents as Carnelian above and created by same viticulturist. Used for blending with lesser wines to improve perceived quality.
Variety, used in white wine production, grown in Portugal. The Sercial grape grown on the island of Madeira is identical and is the corrupted english synonym name.
(aka Bonvino Nero). Red wine grape of ancient origin mostly found in the Latium region of central Italy.
V.vinifera variety grown in Croatia (former Yugoslavia). Individually staked, the vine produces high yields of somewhat densely clustered medium-large pale greenish-yellow skinned berries with high acidity that are mainly used to create neutral white wines suitable for blending, or adding acidity to wines made from varieties such as Grk and Posip. No other details as yet.
Has synonym G-2963. Seedless tablegrape variety with unknown parentage released by the Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station in 1983. Fruit ripens as medium size, loose clusters of orange-red/deep red-skinned berries having delicate V.vinifera flavor. Moderately hardy but susceptible to rot and mildew diseases. No other details as yet.
a French liqueur made from small black raspberries
Has synonym name Joannes Seyve 26205. Bunch rot resistant, mildly winter-hardy to -5 deg. F.(ca -20 C.) french-american hybrid with quite recent (1963) French Rhone origins. Requires a long growing season, often ripening in mid-October. Reportedly vulnerable to Crown-gall disease in Missouri. Used to make very good quality red wines reportedly with spicy aromas, fruity flavors and some herbaceousness if fruit clusters are appropriately thinned. Somewhat low in tannins so can benefit from extended skin contact during fermentation. The addition of other wines seems to create interesting tastes: eg. the addition of about 10% by volume of Carmine wine will produce flavors likened by some to that of an Italian 'Chianti'. Grown in the cooler regions of Eastern U.S., Canada and Europe. Decreasing acreages also found in Australia. Note that due to stringent European Union rules hybrid varieties can no longer be blended with traditional varieties in western Europe although it remains a popular variety and has limited growth in some regions of France (e.g. W. Loire).
a French liqueur made from small strawberries
Large, vigorous American hybrid grape with high heat and drought resistance. Commonly grown in Texas and other Gulf States it is one of the few hybrids developed by T.V. Munson that is resistant to Pierce's disease, the main limiting factor to grape growing in the Gulf South. Recent observations have found that it can, however, act as a host to the bacterium. Reported to be a cross between V. Champinii and a Worden seedling. Since Champanel also has excellent resistance to nematodes, has tolerance of extremely alkaline soil and in spite of the fact that it has only limited resistance to Phylloxera, it is valuable as a rootstock for the black-waxy alkaline soils of Texas. Rootstocks are not usually expected to produce fruit of value, so many grape growers have rejected Champanel for making wine. The grape, however, produces a quite acceptable red wine judged generally superior to such red varieties as Miss(issippi) Blue and Midsouth. The black-skinned berries are reported as low in sugar (15% Brix) and with high acid (1.1 TA) when harvested too early. Ripens about with Concord. The vine's extreme vigor means it does well where other vines may not survive and does not need to be grafted, responding well to cordon or curtain pruning. On certain poorly drained soils showing a high pH the variety can show susceptibility to serious iron chlorosis problems.
A french-american hybrid (Seibel 7053) with origins in the Rhone Valley of France. Hardy, ripens in early to mid-October but has extreme susceptibility to fungal diseases, particularly downy and powdery mildew, in Michigan, Ohio and currently, 1997, is not widely recommended. Was also grown and very popular in France where it was used to produce high quality red and rose' wines. Now being replaced by varieties stipulated by E.U. rules. Also grown in the cooler regions of Eastern U.S. and Canada.
(No other details other than it is a V. Vinifera cross cultivar with several synonym names).
Is a californian alias name for the french Douce Noire variety. Many other synonym names (noted in the Geilweilerhof database above) include Corbeau Noire. The subject name is of the red-wine creating grape grown on small acreages in California. There, this vinename is thought to be an early Italian immigrant corruption of Charbonneau, yet another french synonym for the Douce Noire grape variety from the Savoie region of France and should not to be confused with the unrelated italian Nera Dolce (ie. 'Douce Noire' in french, 'Sweet Black' in english), a synonym name for the Dolcetto grapevine of Piedmont, Italy. The California vine bears small berries that are used to make a very dark red wine that, when subjected to extended skin contact during fermentation, is flavorful and quite tannic, with an ability to improve with ageing over 5 to 10 years. It is claimed the best wines can be cellared out to 20 years, developing great bouquet and flavor.
Recommended frost-hardy French-American hybrid cross released in 1990 and descended from the Seyval Blanc and Chardonnay varieties. Planting has been limited in the face of success with Chardonnay in the eastern and mid-west regions of the U.S. Noted for superior cold-resistant properties since its release from W. New York's Geneva Research Station. Requires good locations (low tolerance of poorly drained soils) with long growing season. Ripens later than its vinifera parent, usually early to mid-October. Used to make quite popular white tablewine in Arkansas, Michigan and Missouri. Recently found to be susceptible to crown gall in wet spots and, in Virginia, to damage by grape root borers.
White-wine producing variety with Chasselas x Chardonnay pedigree grown in the Valais district of Switzerland. Has synonym name Pully 1-33.
an herb -based cordial that comes in either yellow or green varieties; created by Carthusian monks in France in the early 17th century
(Pronounced 'sha-sawn'). White-wine producing grape cross derived from the Chardonnay and Listan varieties. Developed by the U. of Montpellier in France. Used to produce a white-wine with varietal similarities to the Chardonnay parent, including such flavors as honied floral aroma and crisp acidity.
a mild drink, such as beer, taken after a hard liquor
(Pronounced 'shash-lah'). Semi-classic variety grown in Switzerland, France, Germany, New Zealand and U.S.A. Widely grown in the cantons of the first country where it has several regional synonym names, the main one being Fendant in the Vaud and Valais districts. It is also known as Perlan in the Mandement district. Mostly vinified to be a full, dry and fruity white wine. Also currently regarded as the best european tablegrape. In France it is mostly grown in the Loire region where it is converted into a blend with Sauvignon Blanc called 'Pouilly-sur-Loire' and in the Savoie region where it is treated in the Swiss manner. German growers of the Baden region know it under the name Gutedel. In New Zealand it is mainly made into popular sweet white wines. Californian and Australian growers know this variety under the alias names of Chasselas Dore or Golden Chasselas. Recent research indicates that the Viognier grape may be a related mutant variety.
V.vinifera variety now thought to be one of the parents of the Muller-Thurgau cultivar. No other details as yet.
Listed as having the synonym name Chasselas Vibert. Grown in France where it is reported to ripen around early September, producing large bunches of round fruit, rather close set and amber white in color that are popular as tablegrapes. No other details as yet.
Is currently thought to be a mutant clone of Chasselas that usually ripens in mid-September. May have the synonym name Chasselas Rose Violet. No other details as yet.
Has synonym name Seibel 10878 and is pronounced 'shell-oy'. French-american hybrid grape, with Jaeger 70, Aramon, Piquepoul (Blanc), Emily and several others in its genealogy, used to produce very good, robust, fruity red wines claimed to hint of Burgundy and often finished in a dry style. Prone to attack by fungal diseases and vulnerable to bunch rot near harvest in some years. Usually requires cluster thinning and normally ripens in early to mid-October. Recommended mainly for cooler regions of the N. American continent.
Acidic, disease-resistant vinifera cultivar grown in South Africa. Is result of a Chenin Blanc x Ugni Blanc cross. The same parentage is responsible for the cultivar known as Weldra, also grown in South Africa. Used in white wine production.
A widely grown white-wine producing variety, known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France and under the alias name White Pinot (Pinot Blanco) elsewhere in the world. Often made in a number of styles with or without some residual sugar. It is the favored grape of the Anjou region of France and, although naturally a hard, acidic grape slow to mature, is made into fine sweet wines that age well for a least ten years in the bottle. In the U.S. the grape all too often ends up in the generic jug wines of bulk producers as acidity enhancer for otherwise flabby high sugar/alcohol blends.
V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Used as an ingredient of sparkling white wine blends along with Goruli Mtsvane wine. (No other detail:s as yet).
Grown in Georgia (CIS), this V.vinifera variety has the synonym name Tchkhaveri. Mostly found made into a semi-sweet onion-skin style varietal wine.
Derived from a Massasoit x Beta cross. No other details as yet.
an alcoholic drink made from the fermentation of apple juice
Variety recently released by Australia's CSIRO winegrape development program as a recommended red-wine producer grapevine. Reported to be similar to the Tarrango cultivar. No other details as yet.
Red-wine grape used as a component in a multi-wine blend known as 'Velletri Rosso'. Wines from good vintages are known to have excellent ageing ability. Mainly grown in the Castelli Romani region, Latium province of Italy.
Has synonym name Oklahoma 23 S 52. Reported as derived from a selected V.cinerea canescens x Seneca cross. The V.cinerea variety is considered indigenous to the the banks of the Cimarron River of Oklahoma, USA. No other details as yet.
Has synonym name of Cividino. Rare variety grown in N. Italy and used to make an aromatic, flavorsome white varietal wine claimed to have flowery aroma with taste of almonds, curd cheese and sweet limes.
Has synonym names Plant des Carmes, Plant Pouzin and Worthington. Oldline American native V.riperia/labrusca variety reported as originating from an unknown seed planted in a garden in the area of Waterford-on-the Hudson, N.Y., some time prior to 1835. Found to be immune to phylloxera, it is vigorous, hardy and productive but produces small, sour, large-seeded fruit judged unsuitable for tablegrape use. Ripens late in the season to produce dark purplish-black to black berries that make a low-quality wine. Although very sensitive to lime soils (leading to vine-death after a few years) it nonetheless makes an excellent rootstock in lower pH soils, grafting well to labruscas, vinifera stock and rooting very freely from cuttings. Historically used to make simplistic, inky red varietal wines with strawberry-like aroma and 'foxy' flavor. Still found in vineyards of the N.E. USA. and Italy, this variety is still considered to be a good starting point cultivar for breeding grapes suited to growing in cool climates. In the latter country wines from this vine are reported to be known as 'Fragolino' style beverages (although current E.U. rules ban the use of non-V.vinifera vines).
Has synonym name Cacciola. Reported as a variety that may be added to the Trebbiano d'Abruzzo white wine blend. Once regarded as a well-respected variety in the Abruzzi region of Italy.
Variety grown in Campania, Italy, especially near Naples, and used for white blending wine in the 'Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio' white version along with Verdicchio, Greco Bianco and Falanghina.
Has synonym name of Roupeiro and is one of the main varieties known under the alias name of Boal, or Bual, that are grown on the island of Madeira for use in fortified wines.
a high -quality orange -flavored liqueur made from the skins of Curacao oranges; the generic term is Curacao which if redistilled clear is called triple sec
Has synonym name Seibel 8357. Ripening in mid-October this productive, slightly cold hardy, French-American hybrid red-fleshed wine grape is often used in small quantities as a teinturier-style grapewine for its deep coloring effect in blends. Creates a low quality, very dark red wine as a varietal. The Vincent grape - - is very similar (although not as deep in color) somewhat hardier and makes a better wine.
Better known as French Colombard in North America. The grapes from old vines are crushed by some northern Californian producers and made into a fruity white wine of interesting character in both dry and sweet versions. Otherwise mainly grown in California to provide backbone, due to its natural acidic character, for white 'jug' wine blends. Still grown in S.W France where it is used for white wine blends in certain Bordeaux and Gascony AOC's and is also used for distilling into brandy. Also widely grown in South Africa. A recent DNA check by the U.C. Davis team in California demonstrated that this variety possibly resulted from a cross of Gouais Blanc x Chenin Blanc.
Variety occasionally used in a light-bodied blend, based on Sangiovese, with other red wines of Tuscany, Italy. The grape has several synonym names.
Variety grown in the Dealul Mara region of Romania. Small/medium clusters of medium size berries ripen with yellowish-green skins that are susceptible to rot diseases. Usually head trained, spur pruned for best results. Mainly used to create blended light wines suitable for early drinking. No other details as yet.
Red wine variety grown in central Italy. Used as an ingredient in sweet wine blends.
Cool climate cultivar derived from the Traminer and Madeleine Angevine varieties. Claimed to produce fruity white wines similar to those of White Riesling. Has good winter hardiness and bunchrot resistance. Ripens at the same time as Chardonnay and White Riesling in the Finger Lakes region of New York State.
Historically important - (introduced to the Northeast USA around 1850) - very hardy native American V.labrusca cultivar producing the characteristic 'foxy' flavored style of red wine associated with vitis labrusca vines. Ripens by mid-late October. Like its popular offspring Niagara, (created by a Concord x Cassady crossing in 1868), it produces small vines and low crops unless grafted onto a good growth rootstock (eg. '3309') and planted in soils of optimum fertility. Mainly grown in the Eastern and Mid-Western U.S. and Canada to produce sweet finished wines, grape-juice and desirable fruit-flavored dessert grapes. Has susceptibility to skin cracking and postharvest shelling: also to Eutypa-dieback disease. A very similar grape called Fredonia is grown in the Erie region of New York state, ripening about two weeks earlier, and acts as an insurance crop against early frosts. Another version, named Sunbelt, has been developed to give more even fruit ripening in the hot conditions of the Southern and Gulf States of the U.S.A.
Is possibly the most successful of the hybrid red bunchgrapes developed for Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. in order to have resistance to Pierce's Disease etc. Is a cross between two cultivars, each of which has one Concord parent. It is less vigorous than other red cultivars such as Champanel, Blue Lake or Midsouth. Regarded as far superior to Concord for use in the southern Gulf States despite uneven ripening characteristics that force multiple pickings. Vines are not suitable for machine harvesting. Requires grafting to rootstocks such as Dogridge or Tampa for good growth and yields in sandy or highly (7.0 pH) alkaline soils. Recommended as a seeded tablegrape that has the usual slightly 'foxy' taste. When used for wine production it suffers color instability and is only recommended for 'Blanc de Noir' style wine.
a drink made with wine or another spirit and a carbonated mixer
sweetened spirits distilled from fruits, seeds, herbs and peels; also known as liqueurs
(a.k.a Rouge du Pays). Vigorous ancient variety grown in the Valais canton of Switzerland and used to produce rich, plummy, concentrated red wine claimed by some to be reminiscent of french central Rhone versions and often requires similar ageing.
Pronounced 'kor OH-new ah'. Recently (2006) released wine grape from NYS Agricultural Station at Geneva, NY. Classed as a mid-late season (Oct 15-20) ripening variety resulting from a Seyve Villard 18-307 x Steuben cross dating from 1970. Stated to be free of hybrid variety aromas typical of some other hybrid grapes. Recommended for varietal red wine production or blending. No other details as yet.
(Pronounced 'cor-teh-zeh'). Minor grape grown in the Piedmont region of Italy and used to make the 'Gavi' - (e.g: Cortese di Gavi), white wines.
Has several synonym names including Corvina Veronese and Corvina Gentile. Used with several other grapes to create the light red regional blends known as 'Bardolino' and 'Valpolicella' that have a mild fruity flavor with hints of almond. The blends include Rondinella, Molinara (and Rossignola for the latter wine). The latter blending wine has been replaced by some producers with the rare, indigenous Dindarella variety, and the Oseleta in order to produce a more traditional version of 'Valpolicella'. Mainly grown in the Veneto region of northeast Italy.
Has synonym names Corvina Grossa and Cruinon. Reported to be quite similar to the Corvina Nera variety but regarded as lesser quality, although it has higher sugars and better color/tannins, because it does not dry as well as the former grape. It is allowed in Valpolicella and Bardolino blends of the Veneto region of Italy.
This V.labrusca cultivar is reported by Hedrick (Grapes of New York, 1912) as a seedling derived from a Concord x Unknown I.D. hybrid cross introduced in 1869 by R.W. Bull, or is possibly a Concord variety clone. Vigorous and hardy it ripens some one to two weeks before its main parent to give average size dull-black berries that are far less foxy in taste. Requires good soil, the variety lacking somewhat in adaptability. Recommended as a disease resistant cultivar for the State of Arkansas.
Semi-classic grape grown in the southern Rhone and Pyrenees regions of France and used in the red wine blends of Chateauneuf-du-Pape or Banyuls, and other local wines of those regions to create aroma and acidic freshness. Thought by some to be of unknown Spanish grape origin.
Has several synonym names including Vieux Pacherenc. Variety grown in the Pyrenees regions of France and used to create white wine. Commonly blended with Arrufiac and the Mansengs.
Has synonym name Dolceolo. Variety used to create a red wine blend known as 'Madiran', found in the Pyrenees region of France. The other wines in the blend are made from the Bouchy, Pinenc and Tannat variety fruit.
Has synonym name Petit Courbu.
Thought to be one of the parents of Goldriesling below.
Has synonym names Conegliano and Dalmasso 13-11. Derived from a Harslevelue x Malvasia Trevisana crossing. Recently released V.vinifera cultivar finding favor in Italy. No other details as yet.
V.Labrusca variety reported by Hedrick 'Grapes of New York, 1912' as a chance seedling discovered by N. V. Covert of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Has large, sweet, greenish-white berries that ripen with Concord. No other details as yet.
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) bronze self-fertile variety. Has synonym name Georgia 12-2-2. Derived from a Higgins x Georgia 28 cross. Very productive, high (17%) sugar, cultivar reportedly with excellent flavor from large fruit clusters. Restricted to the southern regions of the USA it usually ripens in early season and is mainly used as a tablegrape.
V.labrusca variety of uncertain origin that has synonym names that include Bloom, Catawissa and Laura Beverly. Vigorous, marginally hardy in New York, it is markedly self-sterile. If planted in good soil and well trained it will produce large, succulant fruit of the Isabella type. If allowed to run riot it proves unproductive and sets loose, straggling bunches. According to Hedrick (Grapes of New York, 1912) it ripens early producing dull black berries with a heavy bloom that do not keep well. Believed to be a V.labrusca/vinifera hybrid developed some time prior to 1857 in Pennsylvania, USA and was recommended as an tartly sweet early variety suitable for home gardeners.
Argentine synonym for the Pais grape grown in Chile. The mutation known as Criolla Grande is used to make a generally mediocre white wine.
(See Criolla Chica above).
(Pronounced 'curl-yen-ik kastel-yanskee'). Has synonym names Pribidrag and Tribidrag. Variety indigenous to Croatia, a former province of Yugoslavia. Recent DNA analysis (reported 2001) has shown it to be identical to California's Zinfandel. Because it is recorded as having been grown in Croatia for at least 200 years its claim to fame as the origin of the latter grape appears to be secure. It also appears to be one of the parents, along with the Dobricic variety, of Plavac Mali.
Minor grape grown in the Piedmont, (Piemonte), region of Italy. The Bonarda of the 'Colli Piacentini' and 'Oltrepo Pavese' is actually this grape.
(a.k.a Cruchen). Variety translocated from France to Australia and South Africa where it is used in the production of white wine. In Australia it has been historically known as Clare Riesling presumably being a regional marketing name. See Cape Riesling above for main information.
a delicate orange - flavored liqueur
Local lore suggests this oldline red wine producing grapevine was a 'chance find' wild growth in the State of Arkansas. Ampelographic characteristics are so similar that most experts considered it identical, or closely clonally related, to the Norton grapevine claimed to have originated from the State of Virginia -. DNA analysis carried out in the Geneva Research Station, New York, has shown the two cultivars to be identical members of the V.aestivalis vine group. There is controversy about which cultivar has best resistance to Pierce's Disease. Successful and prized in Arkansas and Missouri where it reportedly ripens in late September and keeps well. It has proven somewhat less adaptable in more southerly States, low productivity small berry clusters having been reported along the Gulf Coast. At the height of the mid-19th century phylloxera crisis in France this variety was the vine of choice for vineyard restoration. However its poor calcium tolerance defeated all efforts at replanting, due to the high lime content of most French soils, and it has never regained that popularity. Grafting is not required. Requires soils with good drainage if disease is to be avoided. Wine color is stable, a characteristic that helped promote its 1873 acclamation in Europe as 'best red wine of all nations'. Popularly known in the USA as the 'Cabernet of the Ozarks'.

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