Greenladd's
Fort Smith, AR
I've been to Roe Restaurant and Prive Bar twice, once before and after the renovation.  This review is strictly on my trip after the renovation which... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Jeremy Delpino
Ole's Tavern
Weiser, ID
I've been to Continental Midtown for happy hour four times now, and each time I love it more and more. For being a usually pricey place, they have a... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Katie R.
Kazbaa
Klamath Falls, OR
I'm a fan of this place before midnight. This place is really only enjoyable if you have a table, so if you plan to stay here all night long make a... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Trinity Arslanian
Club Topaze
Detroit, MI
I love Micky's, it's nice and clean, and there's always cute boys there.... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Katina Thomason
Garage
Mobile, AL
Pretty solid lounge scene here. Nice and dark, bar in the back and seats toward the front. It reminds me a bit of Angel's Share with the layout but... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Gloria C.
Club Bar
Baltimore, MD
My expectations weren't as high as my hopes for this place and last night they roundhouse kicked it out of the ballpark. Soft openings in my... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Jane K.
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Israeli liqueur that is flavored with Jaffa orange and chocolate.
Has synonym name ES 2-1-9. 1978 variety selection by Elmer Swenson currently (2001) popular and extensively grown in Quebec, Canada where it has proved to be cold hardy down to -31 deg. F (-35 C). Claimed to be disease free and much hardier than Marechal Foch or St. Croix. First reports indicate that, if picked early, it can make a high-acid, medium bodied complex red wine with good tannins not unlike Baco Noir although not as distinctly fruity. Varietal wine has been reported to age well and improve after 2 years in the bottle. A 50-50 blend with Frontenac derived wine has been recommended. No other details as yet.
Red-wine grape used to make 'Montefalco' sweet local wines in Umbria, Italy. (No other details known as yet other than this variety is also under trial by certain growers located in Victoria, Australia).
wine produced from rice.
V.champini variety derived from a De Grasset x Brilliant cross. T.V. Munson cultivar (1893) reported as used only for cross-breeding purposes. Reported as cold-hardy to at least -15 deg. F (-22 C). Berry is black-skinned, of medium size, giving quite acid juice until very ripe. No other details as yet.
T.V. Munson American hybrid variety reported as derived from a Salado x Brilliant cross. No other details as yet other than it is claimed to have some resistance to Pierce's Disease.
This red-fleshed grape cultivar is reported to be the popular name of the Seibel 123 hybrid. It is presently listed as grown on small acreages in Brazil, Romania, Spain and the USA. Currently used in the latter country to enhance the color of Californian fortified Port wines. Another grape, Salvador (Blanca) is listed by at least one database as commonly found in Spain.
an Italian licorice-flavored liqueur made from elderberries.
Mutated version of the Pinot Meunier grape. Grown in British Columbia, Canada and other N. American vineyards where it reportedly is used to create a varietal wine closer in style to classic Pinot Noir than does the Pinot Meunier. Limited acreages also (1997) found in Germany.
(Pronounced 'sahn-joe-veh-zeh'). Semi-classic grape grown in the Tuscany region of Italy. Used to produce the Chianti and other Tuscan red wines. Has many clonal versions, two of which seem to predominate. The Sangiovese Grosso clone Brunello variety is used for the dark red, traditionally powerful and slow-maturing 'Brunello di Montalcino' wine. The other is the Sangiovese Piccolo, also known under the historical synonym name Sangioveto, used for standard Chianti Classico DOC wines. Old vine derived wine is often used in the better versions, needing several years ageing to reach peak. A third clone, Morellino, is used in a popular wine blend with the same name found in the southern part of the province. Recent efforts in California with clones of this variety are very promising, producing medium-bodied reds with rich cherry or plumlike flavors and aromas. Among the available clonal versions are R6 and R7, derived from the Montalcino region of Italy, having average productivity/ripening and producing small berries on medium size clusters. R10 and R24 are well-recommended. R23, listed as deriving from the Emilia-Romagna region, has good vigor with medium-small clusters with earlier ripening. R102 derives from the Montepulciano region and reported to have average vigor with moderate productivity that results in higher sugar levels and good acidity from medium-small berries on medium-small clusters. Has synonym name of Nielluccio where grown in Corsica.
(See Sangiovese above). Also known as the Prugnolo Gentile grape. Blended with Canaiolo (Nero) grape wine, it is the basic format used for all contemporary Chianti wines.
Red wine, acidic, teinturier-type grape variety capable of high sugar content widely grown in the winemaking regions of eastern Europe. Ripens late in the season with best results coming from a warm, extended autumn. Has low/moderate winter hardiness (needing 'hilling-up) and easily attacked by the Phylloxera louse. Vigor is moderate, high in moist earth regions. In cool climates is mostly used as a blending wine. Small acreages are found in the Finger Lakes region of New York state in the U.S.A where at least one winery creates a blend with Sereksia (Noire) wine and called 'Black Russian'. Also at least one winery in N.E Victoria, Australia, produces wine from this variety. Several of the most promising crossings with classic grape or cold-climate resistant rootstock varieties, eg. Saperavi Severnyi, have been made available by eastern European research institutes since 1947.
A delicate sweet white wine from the Bordeaux region of France, made from grapes that have been infected with noble rot.
Alternative name for the Tocai Friulano grape of northern Italy. Also known there, and in France and Argentina, as Sauvignonasse. Widely planted in the Friulia region of Italy, this variety is used to make a flavorful, pale straw-yellow, balanced wine designed to be drunk early. In California the grape known as Sauvignon Vert is probably a Muscadelle variety clone.
Pronounced 'sah vah tee yah no'. White-wine grape widely grown in Attica, central Greece. Reported to be very suited to that drought prone region. Usually found as part of a blend with Rhoditis and Assyrtiko grape-wines to create one of the resin flavored wines called 'Retsina' so associated with Greece.
Complex V.labrusca, V.vinifera variety, with red skinned fruit, derived from a Golden Muscat x Teinturier cross. No other details other than it is reported to be a new release from the U. of Georgia Experiment Station.
Reported as a variant of the Schiava Grossa variety this grapevine has several synonym names including Frankenthal. Widely grown in Europe and the Americas. Used for making a red wine in N. Italy. No other details as yet.
Has over 50 synonym names including Frankenthaler (Blau), and Koelner Blau. Also known as Trollinger in south Germany and Vernatsch by german speakers in the Italian Tyrol. Ripens later than Riesling. A variant found in the Trentino-Aldo region of Italy is known as Schiava Gentile and is locally used for making full-bodied fruity, mellow red wines best served chilled and considered good value in better vintage years. N.B:There appears to be some confusion regarding the synonym name Black Hamburg between the named variety and Muscat Hamburg, both varieties being credited with the same synonym name by the Geilweilerhof database. The author has credited the latter variety synonym as being correct for this glossary, an opinion solely based on the use of the word 'Hamburg'.
dry European spirit. Popular flavors include apple, peppermint, peach, black cherry, cinnamon, and wild berry.
Is a cross between Zinfandel and Ontario varieties. A heavy producer, it is early to mid-season ripening. Reported to be susceptible to Crown Gall infection. Severe pruning is needed to keep it from overbearing. The juice is sweet with a vinous taste. Unlike most American hybrids it does not have slip skin fruit. Suitable for Table, Juice or Wine production.
Alias name for the Pinot Meunier grape of France where grown in Australia. Also known as Millers Burgundy. New DNA analysis has shown that the Farbklevner variety has an identical SSR profile. No other details yet.
Minor grape grown mainly in Corsica. Used in rustic red wine blends of local character along with Malvoisie (Noir) and others.
Variety used for red wine production in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Has synonym name of Scorzamara. Reportedly a clonal relative of the Lambrusco grape.
whisky distilled in Scotland, usually from malted barley, broadly divided into 2 types - blended and single-malt.
Historically notable native american Muscadine bronze grape variant with the usual characteristic 'musky/grapey' flavor. Has many synonym names including Hickmans Grape, Bullace etc. Cultivated since 1809, although wine was reportedly made by French immigrants from wild vine fruit as early as the mid-16th century. Mostly confined to the South-East and Gulf states of the U.S. where it can attain 18% fruit sugar content, ripening around mid-season, and is used to produce sweet-finished white wines. Reported to be very resistant to Pierces Disease.
French-American hybrid variety reported to be derived from a (complex V.riperia, V.lincecumii cultivar) Jaeger 70 x Unknown Vinifera cross. No other details as yet.
French-American Hybrid variety. Derived from a Seibel 14 x Ganzin 1 cross. No other details as yet.
Developed in California and released around 1989, this seedless grape cultivar has similar characteristics to Diamond Muscat. No other details as yet.
Reported to be the result of a Lignan Blanc x Ontario cross. Very early ripening, (late August), french-american hybrid white-wine grape, also suitable as a seeded tablegrape, recommended for use in New Mexico and other cool-climate areas. Moderately winter hardy and is susceptible to Powdery Mildew. Widely planted in the North-East regions of the USA.
Pinkish-bronze colored fruit on self-fertile V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety. Derived from a Higgins x Carlos cross. Reported as vigorous, productive needing 'girdling' (a.k.a dry scarring). Usually ripens in mid-season with good (16%) fruit sugars. Claimed to produce a good light red wine.
Rare eastern European white-wine mutant variety thought to originate from the Danube river basin region. In the Finger Lakes region of New York State grapevine plantings on small acreages are used to produce a sweet - (9.2% residual sugar) - fruit flavored white wine blend, along with the variety Rkatsiteli, called 'White Russian'.
Has several synonym names including Sereksia Tcheurnaia and Babeaska Neagra. The traditional Sereksia (Noire) red-wine grape is apparently only widely grown in Moldova, an area once part of Moldavia (a province of Romania) bordering the Black Sea. Also can be found on limited acreages in the Finger Lakes region of New York State where this V.vinifera variety was originally successfully cultivated by Dr. Frank. Is used there to create an aromatic, fruity red wine blend (called 'Black Russian') with Saperavi (Charni) grapewine and having excellent ageing potential.
No other details other than it is a white-wine producing variety developed at Geisenheim, Germany and derived from a Saperavi Severnyi x (Foster x Prachttraube) complex cultivar cross. Currently under test for use as a white wine grape in Europe.
Accession variety, occasionally grown under the name Petite Sirah in California, reported as derived from a Petite Sirah x 3309 Couderc cross (the latter is a V.Rupestris x V.Riparia complex cross variety commonly used as a rootstock). Recent DNA analysis (1999) by U.C. Davis researchers has shown that some accession stock bearing the subject name is in fact Pinot Noir.
Reported to be an Armenian V.vinifera tablegrape cultivar. No other details as yet.
V.vinifera variety developed in the Ukraine from a (V.amurensis x V.vinifera) x Unknown variety. Has several synonyn names including Sev Lernatu. Currently under growing trials in the USA, Canada and several eastern european countries for use as a wine or table grape. Reported to have early budbreak, short growth cycle and low vigor. Somewhat less sensitive to the mildew diseases and phylloxera root parasites than V.vinifera.
(a.k.a Seyval). Has technical name Seyve Villard 5-276. The pedigree parents are listed as Seibel 5656 x Seibel 4986. Is a french-american hybrid grape that can be used to make high quality white wines of various styles. Crisp, fruity dry versions have sometimes been likened to French 'Chablis' in aroma and taste. Wine intensity tends to be perceived as 'thin', consequently either malolactic or barrel fermentation followed by oak ageing is recommended to enhance quality. Grown extensively in the colder northern temperate zones of N. America and Europe, grafting to disease-resistant rootstock (eg. '5BB') is recommended for most sites. Ripening usually occurs around mid-late September. Fruit has high vulnerability to Botrytis bunchrot. This variety also one of the parents of Chardonel, a hybrid-grape cross sharing Chardonnay as the other parent.
Has synonym name Sganetta. Variety reported as grown in the Emilia-Romagna province of Italy where it is used as small additions to light white wine blends based on Sauvignon Blanc in the Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa DOC a little southwest of Reggio Emilia.
American labruscana variety that produces big, compact clusters of large Concord-type berries that normally ripen in late September. Vigorous and productive, often requiring heavy pruning. Very hardy to -15 deg. F. (ca -26 C.), disease resistant and suited for most growing sites. Derived from a Herbert x Worden variety crossing.
a dessert wine from southern Spain.
Alternate name for the french Syrah clone grape grown in Australia and responsible for very big red wines that are not quite as intense in flavor as the french Rhone versions. In the past it was also known under the alias name Hermitage.
(a.k.a Melnik). Variety indigenous to Bulgaria. Used to create an intense red wine varietal capable of improvement with, some say long, ageing.
Has synonym name GM 6495-3. White-wine producing variety. Created in 1964 at the Viticulture Research Institute, Geisenheim, Germany as a moderately winter hardy cultivar derived from parents that include the Saperavi Severny x (Foster x Prachttraube) complex cultivar crosses. Currently under test in Europe for use as a white-wine producer grape. Wine is reported to be neutral in taste, having good body. Reportedly has extremely vigorous growth, with correct nutrition, where planted in Nova Scotia, Canada where it is known as the Jost (Geisenheim). A slightly less hardy, yet similar, set of varieties are found in the Geisenheim series listed above.
Has synonym names of Siegfried and F.S 4-201-3. Is derived from an Oberlin 595 S.P x Riesling complex cross. Credited as a Husfeld release from the Geilweilerhof, Siebeldlingen, Germany. Noted as easily mistaken for the latter parent, the cultivar ripens earlier, is much hardier and is much more resistant to Downy Mildew disease. The fruit is reported by some as having modest results when made into a wine. Currently grown in Germany and British Columbia, Canada.
(a.k.a Saperavi Severnyi in Nova Scotia, Canada). Hardy, low-cropping, early variety originating from Russia via Poland. Imported to Canada as experimental cultivar by Dr. C. Bishop in the mid-20th cent. Buds around late May and ripens mid-late August in the Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada. Very attractive to birds. Also grown in Nova Scotia, Canada, where acids often remain high. High trellising recommended for this vigorous, drooping growth, vine. Juice has good color and the wine is thought suitable for blending with other red wines such as Michurinetz.
a combination of water and granulated sugar that, when boiled, condenses into a clear, sweet syrup - often used in cocktail recipes.
This liqueur is made from local guavaberries on the island of St. Maarten/St. Martin.
Variety grown in Croatia, former Yugoslavia. Moderately vigorous vine that ripens early to give medium dense clusters of greenish skinned berries with white bloom. Mainly used to make young drinking sparkling white wines and blends. Also recommended as a table grape. No other details as yet.
(See Furmint above).
Reported as derived from a Bacchus x Villard Blanc cross. Cold-hardy, late budding cultivar needing a good site for successful growth. Currently used for creating Riesling type wines in Ontario, Canada. No other details as yet.
European Baltic States cold climate variety currently undergoing trial by Geneva Research Station, NY. Also referred to as Skujinsh 675 by some sources. Has synonym name Moskovskiy Ustoichiviy. Derived from a complex (Perle von Csaba x Amurskiy) x Alpha cross. Successfully grown in Latvia, Belarus and regions near Moscow, Russia, without winter protection. Small amber colored berries are early ripening, with complex muscat/pineapple flavor. Good sugar levels (23%) and moderate acidity (6-7 g/l) reported from east european sources. Vines have fair mildew and other disease resistance. It has successfuly passed its N. American quarantine period and can be obtained commercially.
vodka flavored with lime, lemon, tangerine, orange, grapefruit.
non-alcoholic mix flavored with lime, cranberry, orange.
a European plum brandy whose base fruit is a particular variety of black plum called Madjarka.
a cordial or liqueur whose characteristic flavor is derived from sloe berries.
Derived from a Merzling x (Saperavi Severny x Muscat Ottonel) cross. (N.B: The latter pairing is also known by the technical name Geisenheim GM 6493). The named variety was originally designed to be further crossed with the Cabernet Sauvignon variety in order to produce a red-wine grape best suited to the german Alsace region climate and resistant to the common Mildew diseases. Released by the Freiburg Wine Institute, Germany. No other details as yet.
Selected by Elmer Swenson, this vine is winter-hardy to about -30 deg. F. Produces small, seedless orange-red berries with good flavor. Recommended as a juice or table grape for northern cool climates. No other details as yet.
a blended grain mash used to make whiskeys.
a fruity American whiskey liqueur.
V.rotundifolia variety (ie. Muscadine) derived from a Summit x FLA P9-15 cross. Currently recommended for growing in Florida, USA as a tablegrape. No other details as yet.
Black, self-fertile V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) variety derived from a Thomas x Topsail O.P crossing. Has synonym name Meridian 13. Claimed to have good resistance to Pierce's Disease. Vigorous cultivar recommended for use as a tablegrape suitable for growing in the Gulf States of the U.S.A. Usually ripens in mid-season with good (17%) fruit sugar content.
Variety developed in Canada and released prior to 1978. Has synonym names Coronation and Summerland 361. Derived from a Lady Patricia x Himrod cross and popular as a Concord-like tablegrape.
(No information on this grape at present other than it is currently grown in British Columbia, Canada).
Alternate local name for the Nebbiolo grape grown in the Piedmont district of Vercelli in Italy.
Italian sparkling wine.
Patented cold hardy American hybrid suitable for Wine, Juice and Table production. Reported by growers to be hardy to -30 deg. F. (ca -32 C.), lower if snow/mulch covered. Disease resistant and ripens early. Cluster thinning often needed on this vigorous vine whose berries can ripen to 18-22 brix sugar content with good fruit and low tannins suitable for red wine creation. Plantings can be found in Wisconsin, S. Dakota and elsewhere in the U.S Midwest.
Has synonym name G-2496. Introduced in 1947 from the Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station, this complex American/Vinifera variety was derived from a Muench x Gros Guillaume cross. Described as having large compact clusters of very large black-skinned berries that ripen two weeks after Concord. No other details other than it is currently used as a tablegrape.
(See Agiorgitiko above).
Patented Elmer Swenson propagated variety claimed as cold hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.). Is close American hybrid sibling to La Crosse variety. Suitable for making fruity white wine claimed to have Riesling/Muscat character, or as a good tablegrape. Normally ripens in mid-season with about 20 brix sugar content and 1% total acidity. Needs pruning to high bud count for adequate fruit production. It must be planted near other grape varieties, eg. Swenson (Red) or its sibling (above), or other varieties that flower in the same period because it is a female pollinate and so requires cross-pollination. The consensus ratio of pollinator/pollinatee is about 1 male to 8 female vines. Some trials are currently underway in S. Dakota and other moderately cold-winter States.
Late ripening (Oct) harsh-cold hardy red wine grape variety grown in mid-Ohio that is thought by some to be a Dr. Hansen release from the Missouri State Grape Research Station at Mountain Grove. If the assumption is correct it is a V. vinifera x complex T. V. Munson american hybrid. A private letter (quoted in the book 'The Grapegrower', L. Rombough, 2002, pp. 190) suggests it is a possible Chambourcin (or Vidal) x Pinot Noir chance seedling distinguished by having no diglusides like the majority of other french hybrids, only the monoglusides that characterise vinifera, and reported to be a well-adapted 'provenance unknown' vine discovered in Missouri during the mid-1970's. Claimed by the Ohio growers to have some ampelographic similarities to the DeChaunac variety. Used in Ohio to produce wine with mild tannins and elevated acid content best enhanced with french oak flavors. Finished wine is regarded by some as vaguely similar to a young Italian 'Chianti' beverage.
According to the Geilweilerhof database (see 'Foreword' above) this complex V.labrusca/vinifera/aestivalis variety was derived from a Catawba seed x (Norton or Hermann) cross and released about 1892. Usually ripens after Catawba to give medium-small black skinned berries that keep well. Vigorous, productive and hardy it is currently (2002) recommended for growing as a tablegrape in the south and southwest states of the USA (eg. Arkansas).
(No details as yet other than it is derived from a Bacchus x Villard Blanc crossing).
Red-wine grape mainly grown in the central regions of Greece. Mostly used for blending with the Krassato and Xynomavro grape-wines.
(see Chenin Blanc above).
Muscadine cultivar widely grown in S.E United States. Similar to the Carlos grape above.
Hardy, vigorous American native labrusca variety derived from a Wayne x Sheridan labrusca cross. This blue-black skinned grape is sometimes used to make mild, grapey, blush or white wine. Usually ripens around late September. Also commonly used as juice and tablegrape provider. Found mostly in the Eastern and Mid-West regions of the U.S.. Easily adaptable to most growing sites, cluster thinning is usually necessary.
Is a hybrid bunchgrape derived from a complex V.Shuttleworthii O.P (Aestivalis?) Mantey x Seyve Villard 12-309 cultivar cross. Is resistant to Pierce's Disease and designed for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. Requires grafting on Dogridge or Tampa rootstock in alkaline soils for good yields and growth. Mainly used in single varietal or blended sparkling wines.
No other details as yet other than it is listed as an unknown V.labrusca x V.vinifera cross created in the United Kingdom.
an Italian liqueur flavored with citrus fruits, supposedly based on a witches's brew. Name means "witch".
Has synonym name Seibel 6905.
Pronounced 'sool-ter'. Small-berried grape cultivar recommended as suitable for growing in Minnesota (USA) and Saskatchewan, Canada. Reported as a female pollinate derived from a (complex V.riparia/labrusca?) x Concord cross. Listed as extremely cold-hardy sister seedling of the Beta cultivar. Regarded by some as suitable for juice or jellies, but not highly recommended as a tablegrape due to a strong V.riparia flavor.
Derived from a Fredonia x Kishmish Chernyi cross. No other details as yet.
Black fruited, female-pollinate V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety. Has synonym name Georgia S.5-5-5. Derived from a Fry x Georgia S.29-49 cross. Reported to be unsuitable for the US Gulf coast region (no details as yet), this vine is claimed to be very vigorous, with large fruit clusters that usually ripen in early season. 'Girdle' (a.k.a dry scar) for consistency. Fruit has up to 23% sugar content.
Has many synonym names including Sultana and Sultanieh. Thought to have originated in Persia (modern day Iran). In Australia, under the alias name Murray (River) Riesling, the fruit of this variety is used to make a white wine: as it does in California where it is claimed by some to have the synonym name Thompson Seedless. A claimed mutated variety, known as Sonaka (Seedless), is widely grown in India for use as a tablegrape.
Red-skinned V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) female pollinate variety. Has synonym name Georgia 37-40. Derived from a Fry x Triumph cross. Reported as very productive with high (20%) fruit sugar content. Largely restricted to the southern states of the USA it usually ripens in mid-season and is mainly used as a tablegrape.
Patented, very hardy seeded grape similar to Concord and better suited to Southern U.S.A. climate where ripening evenly can be a problem. Excellent disease resistance. Claimed to produce juice of intense color and flavor.
Variety derived from a Campbells Early x Muscat Hamburg cross.
Black V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) female pollinate variety reported as derived from a Lebanese No.9 x Gar- Supreme cross. Very large, very heavy producer. Regarded by some as the best of the Scuppernongs. Is listed as suitable for planting in the Gulf and south-eastern regions of the U.S.A where it usually ripens in mid-late season with high (23%) fruit sugars. 'Girdling' (a.k.a dry scarring) is recommended.
Cold hardy to -40 deg. F. (ca -42 C.), this variety is reportedly a female pollinate and where grown in Ontario or Nova Scotia (Canada) is planted in alternate rows with other cultivars. The acidic wines are currently only recommended for blends.
Has synonym name Lisicina. V.vinifera variety indigenous to Balkans countries (eg: Slovenia). Moderate cold temperature resistance. No other details as yet.
Is designed to be resistant to Pierce's Disease for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. Mainly used in sparkling wine blends.
a wine-based liqueur that is flavored with gentian root.
Bronze, female-pollinate V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety. Derived from a Georgia 11-2-2 x Georgia 12-12-1 cross. Reported to to be vigorous and disease resistant, usually ripening in early mid-season with high (23%) fruit sugars.
Has synonym name ES 6-1-43. Very vigorous variety developed in 1980 and released around 1994 by Elmer Swenson at the Univ. of Minnesota from an Edelweiss x E.S. 442 seedling that ripens around early October with about 20 brix sugar content. Has large thick-skin berries of moderate acidity. Claimed to be very frost (to -30 deg. F. ie. -35 C) and disease resistant, with a hardiness exceeding that of the St. Pepin variety (above), and reported as closely resembling the latter cultivar in wine quality. Recommended as a candidate for the production of Late Harvest and 'Eiswein' (ie. white Icewine) in Minnesota.
White-wine producing grape-cross derived from Muscat of Alexandria and Grenache Gris created in 1948 by a Univ. Davis viticulturist. The wine has an unusual resistance to oxidation, maintaining its light color, delicate Muscat flavor and bouquet for ten or more years. Fully ripens around late September in central California where it is mainly used as a varietal or blending wine in sweet, sparkling or dry format. May be the variety known as Symphonie in the Alsace region of France.
A grape variety associated with the Rhone Valley region of France, famous for creating 'Hermitage' red wine. Recent research (reported 27 June '01) has determined that the parents of this variety are most likely to be Mondeuse Blanche x Dureza. In southern France some regard the grape as taking two forms, the Grosse Syrah and Petite Syrah, distinguished only by berry size. Experts reject this distinction but it has in the past led some wine producers in North and South America to mistake California vineyard plantings of Petite Sirah, which produces a very dark red and tannic wine judged simple in comparison to the true Rhone Syrah, as the latter grape. DNA analysis has now shown (Meredith C.P., et al., 'Am. J. Enol. Vitic.' 50(3): 236-42 1999) there is in fact a probable cross-variety relationship. Local lore has it that a (presumed) clone 877 of N. Rhone provenance, once known as the Scyras, was grown very successfully in cooler regions of Australia and now is known as the popular Shiraz variety. It should be noted that French grower reports indicate that the variety shows poor compatibility with the commonly used lime-tolerant 110R rootstock. In the state of California, depending on location, vintage or fermentation technique, the variety is used to either produce a spicy, complex wine or a simple wine. Considerable acreage is grown in South Africa, and also in Argentina where it has historically been called the Balsamina variety until the late 1960's.
Variety reportedly used as part of certain sparkling white-wine blends in France and for dessert wines elsewhere. (No other details as yet other than it is also referred to as the Feher Szagos variety, possibly the late-ripening Munson cultivar of the same name).

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