Country Time Bar
Jacksonville, NC
nice club...tries hard...good music...downstairs is fun...... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Denise C.
Clancy's Go-Go
Norfolk, VA
weak. MUSIC: cheezy hip hop. ugh. i left shortly after i arrived. DECOR: typical hotel decor, & that ain't good. it's supposed to be hip, not tired &... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by miss b.
Garden Lounge
Moscow, ID
You know, I really don't know how to rate this place.  I had one day in Philadelphia, and I figured it was the type of city to have 1 or 2 locations... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Ervin Macapagal
Sidewinders Tavern & Sports Grill
Jackson, WY
So, I had great expectations of getting a decent shot or three of whiskey and a bite to eat. Admittedly, this was our third place of choice, but we... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Julius Dehaemers
Celebrations
Myrtle Beach, SC
OK here is the story....we waited until they opened and when we finally got there we were informed that the show did not start until 1:30 am and that... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Connie Fomby
Half Moon Saloon
Gallatin Gateway, MT
yeeaaaa..coke freaks.... (more)
RatedNightclubs, Bars and Pubs
by Andrea Mondello
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Has synonym names Maccabeo Alcanol and Maccabeu in France. Also known in Spain by the synonym name Viura. Grows well in arid climates. Widely grown in many regions of northern Spain. Small amounts are grown in the Languedoc region of France and in north Africa. This variety is mainly used to make mildly acidic and young white wines suitable for early consumption or incorporation into suitable blends/cavas.
a wine resembling sherry traditionally produced in the Madeira Islands, a chain of 8 islands off the northwest coast of Africa.
Variety grown in France and mainly used as a tablegrape. Quite large bunches: the grapes are round, medium sized and pearly white in color when fully ripened around mid-August. Its main claim to fame is as one of the parents of Madeleine Angevine'. No other details as yet.
Vinifera grape suitable for white-winemaking. Ripens early, with consequent susceptibility to attack by bunch rots, birds and wasps. Wine is aromatic and light, useful for blending with other intensely flavored wines. (No other details available as yet).
Red-wine variety grown on the Puglia region of Italy. Used as part of a seven wine complex blend.
Is a complex bronze, self-fertile V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) cultivar derived from a (Thomas x Scuppernong) x (Topsail x Tarheel) cross. Has synonym name North Carolina 60-60. Usually ripening in mid-season with 15% fruit sugar content, is recommended as a wine (or tablegrape) cultivar. Used to make sweet white wines with floral flavors in the South-East and Gulf States of the U.S.A. Has some disease problems, particularly with fruit-rot, but has good resistance to Pierce's Disease.
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) self-pollinating cultivar derived from a Thomas x Burgaw cross. Claimed as resistant to Pierce's Disease, it is currently recommended for growing in the Southern and Gulf States of the U.S.A for use as a tablegrape crop.
Pronounced 'mah la goo zya'. White-wine grape indigenous to the Nafpaktos region in western Greece. Now widely grown in Macedonia, Attica and the Peloponnese regions of Greece. Reported to be a very aromatic grape with medium acidity having high quality wine aromas hinting of citrus, jasmine and mint.
Has synonym names Completer, Lafnetscha, Lindauer and Rauschling Edelweisser. Variety native to Switzerland and used in the Grisons canton region to make aromatic white wine blends with some ageing ability.
According to the Geilweilerhof database this variety has several synonym names, including Amabile and Tubino. Reported as grown in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy where it is used as a blending wine in Lambrusco wines and as a frizzante varietal etc.
a white rum-based liqueur which is flavored with coconut.
Minor grape found mainly in Corsica. Used to produce local, high-alcohol wines blended from grapes of mainly Spanish origin such as the Grenache and others. The variety with the name Malvoisie in the Languedoc region of France is actually the Bourboulenc.
Mainly grown in Chianti DOC region of Tuscany, Italy. Red wine producing variety used in the various blends of the area. Has synonym name of Fegeri.
a French brandy-based liqueur that is flavored with tangerine skins. Grand Marnier is widely preferred to Mandarine Napoleon.
Pronounced 'mahn dee lar yah'. Has synonym name Amorgiano. Winegrape variety widely grown on the Eastern Mediterranean islands of Crete, Rhodes and Santorini. Used to create red AOC blends of distinctive character. No other details as yet.
Alternate name for the Primitivo (di Gioia) variety.
Variety grown in the area of Bugey, France. Reported to yield a mediocre, 'muddy' wine. No other details as yet.
Appears as two clones, Gros Manseng and Petit Manseng, mainly to be found in the western regions of the Pyrenees area of southwest France. Used for producing both dry and sweet white wines.
Has synonym name Mantonegro. Native red-wine grape indigenous to the island of Mallorca along with two others, Callet and Fogoneu. Used to make a strong, spicy wine blends with some ageing ability. Varietal wines tend to fast oxidation. Currently most plantings occur on the Balearic Islands.
No other details as yet other than this variety, grown in the Friuli region of Italy, is reportedly the result of a cross between Prosecco and Cabernet Sauvignon).
a cordial distilled from a bitter wild cherry called the marasca.
Has at least 9 synonym names including Rukatac. Loose clustered V.vinifera grown in Croatia (former Yugoslavia). Berries are small-medium size with pale-green skins. Reported as appearing to do well on clay rich red soils. Due to low sugar the grapes are mainly used to create white wines good for sparkling and/or blending suitable for early drinking. No other details as yet.
Recently developed variety, derived from a Grenache x Cabernet Sauvignon cross, grown in France.
(pronounced 'mar-esh-shall-fosh'). Has synonym name Kuhlmann 188-2. Short season french-american hybrid small-cluster grape with hard-cold tolerance to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C). Having good resistance to the usual diseases, it normally ripens in early September. Grows well in sandy soils, but may need grafting for use in heavier soil types. Prof. Kuhlmann, the hybridizer, reported using an American riparia-rupestris hybrid variety as one of the parents but, confusingly, others argue that he instead somewhat misleadingly used the Oberlin 595 S.P, a Gamay based french-american hybrid developed by his father-in-law, in the cross with Goldriesling that created the offspring cultivar. Noted for producing somewhat light, yet deeply colored and strongly varietal, wines described as having a 'Burgundian' character. Usually needs the help of carbonic maceration or hot-pressing to enhance quality. Birds find the small berries very attractive. Also known under the name Foch..
Reported to be a Post Oak 2 x Herbemont cross suitable for winemaking. Claimed to have high resistance to Pierce's Disease in Texas - ten years infection free. Reported to be shy bearer on short arms, bears heavily on long arms - 8ft spacing between vines is recommended. No other details as yet.
Vinifera variety developed at the Wurtzberg Institute, Germany in 1971. Is a Silvaner x Rieslaner cross. Vigorous, hardy, with early wood hardening. Used for creating white wines.
Long established (pre-19th cent. ?) V.vinifera variety having 10 synonym names including Ansley's Large Oval Black and Geisdutte Blau. Currently grown in Argentina, Australia, France, Germany, Russia and the Ukraine for tablegrape use. No other details as yet.
Has the synonym name MN 1211. One of only two seedlings selected in 1994 and had patent application in 2005. Introduced in 2006, this cultivar was developed (1989) by the U. of Minnesota Horticultural Center from a MN 1094 complex hybrid x Ravat 262 cross. Hard frost resistance to -36 deg. F (approx. -35 C) without serious injury. Claimed to have very good resistance to Black Rot and the Mildew diseases aided by its open, orderly growth formation requiring minimal spray protection. Ripens in mid-season, a few days before Frontenac. One report claims a possible susceptibility to pre-veraison berry splitting in certain unspecified conditions. Ripens with high sugar (26.1 Brix) and moderate acidity (1.19%). Recommended for making a ruby-red wine of complex nature, pronounced tannins and desirable fruit/spice notes on the nose and palate. Appears to have promise for growing in the Upper Midwest/North East USA and N.E. Canada plus parts of northern and eastern Europe.
(Pronounced 'mar-kee'). Newly released (1996) variety by W. New York's Geneva Research Station from a cross between the Athens and Emerald (Seedless) grapes. Large cluster, winter hardy (to -20 deg.F?), seedless, delicate green-yellow skinned berry suitable for tablegrape or white wine production. Slipskin berry has mild 'foxy' flavor and moderate disease resistance. Does well in heavier soils. Ripens in mid-September as a mildly fruity berry, developing a rich Labrusca flavor if left to ripen on the vine. Promising results have been reported for Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan and New York.
Largest of the seedless blue berries in medium clusters. Hardy, early variety with moderately vigorous productivity. Recommended as good tablegrape for Oregon. Some describe labrusca flavor profile as similar to the Concord. Normally ripens in the mid-to-late September timeframe.
Semi-classic grape used in the traditional white wine blends of the French Hermitage-Rhone region. With long barrel-ageing in the past, these wines used to require about ten years in the bottle before drinking. The other grape wine used in the blend was the Roussanne. Also found on small acreages in Australia and Switzerland. In the latter country it has the synonym name Ermitage.
Seedling of Concord introduced around 1868. Self-fertile, it ripens around a week earlier than its parent to give a medium size berry that has a light-green, with a touch of yellow, skin. Less foxy than its parent it was often mistaken for the Niagara variety although it reportedly does not keep or ship well. Due to the popularity of competing varieties it was gradually displaced and now sparcely grown, if at all.
Grape variety used to make a red varietal reminiscent of Gamay type wine but with almond-taste undertones. Mainly restricted to the Trentino-Alto Adige region of Italy. Synonym names include Bassanino and Uva Tedesca.
Has synonym name Rogers 3. Reported to be derived from a Carter x Black Hamburg cross, released about 1867. Vigorous and very hardy in all but the coldest winters, it bears a striking resemblance to Isabella, although the berries remind one of Catawba. Ripens a little later than Delaware. The fruit has the peculiarity of being at its best before full maturity, at full ripeness having a degree of 'foxiness' some find undesirable. Has susceptibility to mildew and rot. Berries are large to medium in size, dark brownish-red in skin color.
New World alias name for the Mourvedre grape variety..
V.vinifera variety grown in south-central Europe and in the Caucasus region. Has several synonym names including Shirai Kara. Most commonly encountered as a varietal red wine from Georgia (CIS).
Has synonym name Ribadavia. Low yielding variety grown in the Rioja region of Spain. Of historical interest it was rescued from near extinction in 1988. It is currently used to create complex white wines of high alcohol content. No other details as yet.
Minor grape mainly grown in the Gaillac region southeast of Bordeaux in France. Used, with Len de l'El to create mildly sweet and sparkling white blended wines. It is also known in other regions under the local synonym name of Blanquette: (not to be confused with a similarly named grape grown in certain regions of Australia).
Grape variety common to Greece and Cyprus. Name translates as 'black'. Used to produce an unremarkable dark red varietal wine or, on Cyprus, a dry red blend with Opthalmo grapewine having limited ageing ability. Has several synonym names including Kypreiko Mavro, Cypro Nero and Cyperntraube.
Pronounced 'mav roh thaf nee'. Red-wine grape widely grown in the Patras region on the north coast of the Peloponnese in southern Greece and either used to make a dry wine suitable for blending purposes, or, as also on the island of Rhodes, to make a moderately sweet, portlike, dessert wine. Variety name translates to 'black laurel'.
Vitis hybrid reported to be a bud sport of Fredonia released in 1961. Similar to the latter relative except that it bears very large clusters, triple in size. Blue/black berries are reported to be subject to severe shattering, often low in sugar and flesh is pulpy in Oregon. Needing good fertility it ripens in mid-season. Not recommended for large-scale commercial use.
Productive, cold-hardy, bunch rot resistant, white wine grape developed by Geneva Research Station of N.Y. that does not require cluster-thinning. Released in 1985, the grape claims Pinot Blanc as one of its parents and its off-dry wine versions tend to have the same fruitiness as the parent grapewine product. Currently, (1997), overshadowed by the success of Cayuga (White) and consequent poor market demand.
Identical to the Muscadet de Bourgogne grape..
Has synonym name Rogers 19. Tablegrape variety derived from a Carter x Black Hamburg cross. Released about 1860 it appears to have been commonly grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State during the late 19th cent. Vigorous, moderately productive/hardy, ripening a little later than Concord. Berries are large-medium in size, with black skin. Reported to be poor in quality as a wine/tablegrape.
White-wine grape found in the Bakaa Valley of Lebanon. Said to resemble Semillon when made into a dry wine. Used by Chateau Musar for blending with Obaideh grapewine to create an oaked wine capable of ageing for between 5-10 years.
This variety, released from the Freiburg State Wine Institute, Germany, has the synonym names FR 993-60 or Freiburg 993-60. It is derived from a Seyval Blanc x (Riesling x Pinot Gris) cross. The named cultivar was originally designed to be further crossed with the Cabernet Sauvignon variety in order to produce a red-wine grape best suited to the german Alsace region climate and resistant to the common Mildew diseases but, based on its parentage, would seem suitable for creating its own quaffable varietal white wine. No other details as yet.
(Information is incomplete on this red-wine grape grown in Greece).
Has several synonym names including Bordeaux Blanc. Recent DNA checks have revealed that the parentage is possibly a Gouais Blanc x Chenin Blanc cross. No other details as yet.
popular Greek brandy (made mainly from the Savatiano and Muscat grapes).
(Pronounced 'muh-ny-ay'). Alternate name for Pinot Meunier..
(a.k.a Pallieri). Table grape derived from the vinifera crosses (also tablegrapes) Alphonse Lavallee and Red Malaga. Currently known to be grown in Chile and Venezuela. Care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable rootstock - (eg. the Alphonse Lavalee variety has been found to be incompatible with a Ramsey rootstock grafting by South African growers).
East European extreme-winter hardy grape of astonishing vigor derived from numerous varieties of european vinifera, plus amurensis rootstock. The name is apparently an anglicized version of 'Miczurinoweic'. Currently planted on limited commercial/nursery acreage in the Finger Lakes region of W. New York (USA), Nova Scotia (Canada), British Columbia (Canada) and more widely in eastern Europe. Requires drastic cluster thinning of secondary late clusters and side shoots. Early shutdown prior to anticipated first frost can occur as much as a month before and results in fruit fall within days. Susceptible to fungus diseases Aspergillus, Powdery Mildew etc. Winter hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) this variety usually buds in late May. Capable of producing fine red Cabernet Sauvignon style wine in N. America when mature although currently, 1997/98, receiving mixed reviews because of tendency toward high acid and low sugar in less than good years. Regarded as quite similar to the Russian hybrid Cabernet Severnyi grapecross listed above.
a sweet and syrupy melon liqueur that comes in a green bottle. It is close to banana in both taste and aroma. It is the most popular melon liqueur.
(No other information available at present other than it is a hybrid developed for resistance to Pierce's Disease in Florida and other Gulf States of the U.S.A. and reportedly has similarities to the Blue Lake and Conquistador bunchgrapes).
Rootstock vine with french origin. Male, very early budbreak. Roots and grafts well. Does not tolerate high lime soils. Resistant to phylloxera and drought. No other details as yet.
Alias name for the Pinot Meunier grape of France where grown in Australia. Also has synonym names of Schwarzriesling and Black Riesling. Is a Pinot Noir clone widely grown for use in Champagne-style sparkling wine blends: probably imported from Germany where it is known as the Muellerrebe grape.
Minor grape mainly grown in Corsica and used in local high-alcohol wine blends along with Malvoisie (Noir) and Sciacarello red wine grapes.
Variety developed about 1870 in Ontario, Canada, reportedly from a Muscat Hamburg seed x Creveling cross. Winter tender and has medium vigor/productivity in New York State. Only succeeds in certain soils, seemingly favoring heavy, rich clay-type soils. Ripens somewhat later than Concord to give large, very dark-red to jet-black skinned berries when fully ripe than can hang until April.
Variety grown in Portugal and mainly used for white wine. Derived from a Diagalves x Alva V.vinifera cross. No other details as yet.
This cultivar is reported as derived from a Galibert 261-12 x (Extra x Marguerite) seedling, the latter two varieties being complex V.lincecumii varieties reported as created by T. V. Munson. Used in the production of white-wine blends for sparkling wines in Florida, it was developed by N.H. Loomis at a USDA experiment station (long since closed) in Mississippi. Released by Mississippi State at the same time as Miss(issippi) Blue and Midsouth. All three are resistant to Pierce's disease.
This variety is reported as derived from a Moore's (Early) x Dogridge cross, the latter variety being V.champini, developed by N. H. Loomis at a (long closed) USDA station in Mississippi and released at the same time as Miss(issippi) Blanc and Midsouth, all three being resistant to Pierce's disease).
Earliest grape planted in 17th century in what is now the state of California, where it is currently (1997) used to make several styles of wine - 'Criolla' a tablewine, 'Angelica', a very long-aged (50+ years) french Ratafia-like fortified wine and some late-harvest wines aged for 20+ years that are made from sun-dried grapes. Thought to have arrived in the America's by Spanish conquistadores importation. Known to be identical with the Pais grape widely grown in Chile and thought to originate from the Monica grape of Spain and Sardinia.
Has synonym name Grein 1:Riesling. Derived from a V.riparia seedling Taylor x Unknown V. labrusca cross. According to Hedrick, is an American labruscana variety bred about 1860 by Nicholas Grein of Hermann, Missouri. Once commonly grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York and used to occasionally create botrytis affected sweet white wines with no noticeable labrusca taste.
Variety developed by U.Minnesota Agricultural Dept. with complex parentage that includes V.riparia, V.vinifera and lesser amounts of several other Vitis species. Is one of the parents of the Marquette variety. No other details as yet.
Cultivar developed by Elmer Swenson for harsh cold resistance. Is one of the parents of Swenson Red and La Crosse. No other details as yet.
coffee liqueur.
Has several synonym names including Rossanella, Uva Salata and Vespone. Acidic red wine variety mostly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used to create the 'Valpolicella' and 'Bardolino' blends, along with the Rondinella and Corvina grape wines.
Variety grown on the island of Mallorca, off the coast of Spain, and used to produce somewhat spicy white varietal still and sparkling wines. Has the synonym name Prensal Blanco.
(See Burger above).
(a.k.a Mondeuse Noir). Minor grape grown in the Savoie region of France. Usually blended with wine made from the Altesse grape to make the white wine known as 'Roussette de Savoie'. Some authorities consider the grape to be identical to the Refosco grape of Italy. Also recently identified as extensively present in many vineyard plantings of vines known as Petite Sirah in California. Considerable acreages are also found in Australia where the grape is (incorrectly ?) known as Refosco.
Variety grown in the Savoie and Buzet regions of France. Has several synonym names including Blanchette, Jongin and Molette. The latter name is used by the producers of a wine-blend, in combination with the Altesse variety, called 'Seyssell' that is made in a 'frizzante' style due to deliberate incomplete fermentation at the time of bottling.
Greek name for the Malvasia white-wine grape renowned for making fortified Madeira wines on the island of that name. In Greece is often blended with Mandelaria grape-wine to give a strong, aromatic drink.
Minor grape native to Sardinia. Made into both a dry, red wine and also a sweet, spicy red wine. Thought by some to be the antecedent of the Mission grape of early California fame.
Reported as a white, female flowered V.vinifera tablegrape variety of only historic interest. Claimed to be the vine blessed by Jesus Christ and translocated in the Middle Ages to its namesake region of Italy. As such it has been planted in locations of religious worship as a sacred symbol. Nondescript, the vine lacks hardiness and has low vigor. Vigor might be increased if grafted to a suitable rootstock. Not recommended for commercial use.
V. hybrid cultivar derived from a complex (Fredonia x Niagara) x (Fredonia x Athens) parentage cross. Released in 1973, this productive, disease resistant variety resembles Steuben. Normally ripens around two weeks earlier than Concord and can be used to make a fruity, mildly 'foxy' wine of good quality.
White-wine producing variety mainly used in the production of brandy-type fortified wines in Bordeaux, France, or the Rutherglen, N.E Victoria region of Australia. Synonyms are Aucarot and Chalosse.
Variety originating in Afghanistan. Has several synonym names including Black Monukka, Kishmish Chernyi and Russian Seedless. Large purple-black skinned berries, mostly used as a tablegrape, that needs less summer heat than Thompson Seedless, usually ripening in early mid-season. No other details as yet.
Vitis hybrid cultivar released in 1969 by Virginia Polytech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Reported as derived from a Fredonia x Athens cross. Vigorous and hardy to ca. -5 deg. F. Ripens 3 weeks before Concord producing large, dark red berries having a foxy flavor. Recommended for use as juice or table grape. No other details as yet.
Reported as a medium vigor but poorly producing Concord x Unknown variety tablegrape cultivar that ripens around 2-3 weeks before the former variety.
Has synonym names Brujidera, Crujidera, Moravia Agria, Moravia Dulce and Trujidera. Productive, formerly rare, variety that yields juice generously with big, compact clusters of fruit. Used to produce red wine blends in La Mancha province of Spain. No other information as yet.
Vinifera variety developed by Peter Morio at the Geilweilerhof Institute, Germany around 1961. Successfully grown in cool climate regions of the Northeast USA and Canada. Best results obtained in deep, humus-rich soil on a good site. Ripens later than Scheurebe around early to mid-season. Has extraordinary Muscat bouquet and flavor when fully ripened and so mostly used sparingly in white wineblends. Reportedly not a true Muscat but a Silvaner x Pinot Blanc cross.
(No other details other than it is a rare variety grown on small acreage in Piedmont, Italy and used to create a good quality red varietal dry wine).
Medieval Tuscan grape variety still grown in minute commercial quantity. Used in producing a somewhat rustic, amber-colored 'frizzante' series of sweet wines in the Montalcino DOC of Tuscany, Italy.
(see Muscat Blanc below).
Has synonym name Moschomavro. Cultivated in Greece primarily as a tablegrape. Crushed in some regions in order to make modest red wines with Muscat aromas and good maturity levels. No other details as yet.
Pronounced 'mos co fee le ro'. Has alternative name spelling 'Moschophilero'. White-wine grape widely grown in the Mantinia AOC region of the Peloponnese, southern Greece. Usually vinified to give a light, aromatic, dry varietal wine with aroma hinting of roses and violets that can be drunk as an aperitif or with food.
Austrian growers name for the hungarian Furmint grape.
Rare variety, used for white wine production, currently only found in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Has several synonym names including Pagadebito, Pagadebit (Gentile), Uva Barile and Vaccume. Used to make dry and sweet varietal wines of delicate style. May be a synonym name for the variety Biancone.
Red-wine variety grown in Australia and used to produce Port-type fortified wines.
Is the result of a T.V. Munson developed Neosho x Herbemont cross. Reported to be prolific and disease free with small-medium size berries having juicy pulp. No other details as yet.
V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has several synonym names including Mtsvane and Goruli Mtsvane. Used mainly in white wine blends, along with Rkatsiteli wine, that include a well-regarded aged dry version named 'Tsinandali' and others. No other details as yet other than this variety is under trial by some growers in Victoria, Australia. Also reported to have the name Matsvane when used by a British Columbia, Canada winery to make a varietal wine.
(a.k.a Muscadelle de Bordelais). Semi-classic grape grown in the Gaillac region of France, about 100 miles southeast of Bordeaux, and used in local white sweet wine blends. Incorrectly called Sauvignon Vert in California. Winemakers in the Rutherglen, N.E Victoria region of Australia use it to produce a superb sweet dessert wine known as 'Liqueur Tokay of Australia', the name being due to the mistaken early belief that the Tokaji wines of Hungary were made from this grape.
(a.k.a Melon de Bourgogne). Productive cool-climate grape widely grown on the Atlantic seaboard of the Loire region of France. The juice goes into the making of the dry, tart white wine that is famous as 'Muscadet de Sevres et Maine' or is distilled. The wine is light and fresh with distinctive fruit in good vintage years and best consumed while young. Recent DNA analysis indicates that this variety is yet another offspring deriving from an ancient Pinot cepage x Gouais Blanc cross. Also found in California because recent research indicates some plantings of this cultivar may have been mis-named Pinot Blanc. Confusion with Chardonnay sometimes results because the latter grape has several synonyms that include the word 'Melon'.
Is a native American species of grapevine commonly found in the Southern states of the U.S. and Mexico. Technically classified as 'Muscadinia rotundifolia', this genus has 40 chromosomes as opposed to the 38 chromosomes of genus 'Vitis'. It does not bear its fruit in bunch form but as clusters of single berries (presumably as an evolved strategy against the fungus rots so common in humid regions such as its habitat) that drop from the clusters when ripe. The berries do not keep and must be consumed or used within about a week. Possibly the most familiar variety name of this species is the Scuppernong. In common with certain seedless V.vinifera tablegrapes this species requires 'girdling' (a.k.a 'dry scarring' or 'cincturing') vine trunks (or canes) to increase berry weight and uniformity at harvest. Normal practice involves removing a thin ring about 1/10 to 3/10ths inch (approx. 3-8 mms) wide, with a dedicated tool, of conducting material from around the complete circumference of a vine cane/trunk (ie. so severing the phloem connections through to the cambium and interrupting the flow of nutrients). Legend tells that this technique was discovered by a farmer who tethered his donkey to a vine trunk and observed that the resulting injury to the vine caused beneficial effects for the grower. Girdling at veraison (when berries begin to soften) reportedly hastens maturity but does not usually increase berry size. Often the operation is carried out about a week after post-flowering shatter and should be completed before the berries reach about 6-8 mm in diameter. Girdling before the completion of post-flowering shatter or during bloom is reported to result in a heavier set and subsequent tighter clusters. Double girdling is normally reserved for varieties having vigorous growth and should not be carried out every year unless the vines are exceptionally strong. It is then advisable to reopen the original wound rather than create a new girdle at another location on the trunk.
Minor grape grown in the southern Rhone region of France and used to create color and body in red wine blends.
No other details as yet other than it is listed by the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) as grown in central Europe and used mainly as a tablegrape. May be the heavy-cropping english tablegrape variety known as (Muscat) Dr. Hogg where grown in the warmer regions of New Zealand and used to make an aromatic white blending wine.
Has synonym name Couderc 299-35. No details as yet other than it is one of the parents of the Valvin Muscat variety.
White-wine producing variety probably yet another mutant clone of Muscat Blanc above. Has over thirty synonym names according to the Geilweilerhof database (above), including Fior d'Arancio (found in the Veneto region of Italy), Orange Muscat, Malvoisier and, in Australia, Orange Flora.
(See Muscat Blanc above).
Also has synonym name Muskatel, and in Bulgaria, Misket or Mishket. This variety is reported as entirely unrelated to the Muscat family. Widely grown in the Ukraine and other eastern european countries where it is used to produce an aromatic white wine for use as a varietal or as a component of a blend.
Native American V.mustangensis (f.k.a. V.candicans) variety indigenous to an area that includes southern Kansas, most of eastern Oklahoma and Texas, through to western Arkansas and Louisiana. Described as thriving on soil containing up to 60% lime and rooting best by the layering technique, or somewhat poorly from cuttings. Bears large fruit, described as having an 'acrid' taste, reportedly used (eg: The Mustang Grape/Wine) to make a sweetened drinkable wine by the addition of much sugar. Not to be confused with a V.munsoniana Muscadine species cultivar having the same name. No other details as yet.

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